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Masons Deutsch Navigation menu VideoIn Teufels Küche - Hannah \u0026 Mason's Ebenfalls unterhalten Twitter Kungen Logen eine karitative Schwestervereinigung und halten gesellschaftliche Schwesternfeste ab. Seit dem Maurerhammer m. Suchverlauf Lesezeichen. Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper. His writings represented his personal opinion only, and furthermore an opinion grounded Luxor Casino the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the US. Arnold-Forster p. The remainder of the organization was to continue until and Mitchell Weiser News forced dissolution of the German Grand Lodges.
Accordingly, Masons swear at each degree to keep the contents of that degree secret, and to support and protect their brethren unless they have broken the law.
In Progressive continental Freemasonry, books other than scripture are permissible, a cause of rupture between Grand Lodges.
Since the middle of the 19th century, Masonic historians have sought the origins of the movement in a series of similar documents known as the Old Charges , dating from the Regius Poem in about  to the beginning of the 18th century.
Alluding to the membership of a lodge of operative masons, they relate it to a mythologised history of the craft, the duties of its grades, and the manner in which oaths of fidelity are to be taken on joining.
There is no clear mechanism by which these local trade organisations became today's Masonic Lodges. The earliest rituals and passwords known, from operative lodges around the turn of the 17th—18th centuries, show continuity with the rituals developed in the later 18th century by accepted or speculative Masons, as those members who did not practice the physical craft gradually came to be known.
Alternatively, Thomas De Quincey in his work titled Rosicrucians and Freemasonry put forward the theory which suggested that Freemasonry was possibly an outgrowth of Rosicrucianism.
The theory had also been postulated in by German professor; J. Many English Lodges joined the new regulatory body, which itself entered a period of self-publicity and expansion.
However, many Lodges could not endorse changes which some Lodges of the GLE made to the ritual they came to be known as the Moderns , and a few of these formed a rival Grand Lodge on 17 July , which they called the " Antient Grand Lodge of England.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Scotland were formed in and respectively, although neither persuaded all of the existing lodges in their countries to join for many years.
The earliest known American lodges were in Pennsylvania. The Collector for the port of Pennsylvania, John Moore, wrote of attending lodges there in , two years before the putative formation of the first Grand Lodge in London.
Other lodges in the colony of Pennsylvania obtained authorisations from the later Antient Grand Lodge of England , the Grand Lodge of Scotland , and the Grand Lodge of Ireland , which was particularly well represented in the travelling lodges of the British Army.
After the American Revolution , independent U. Grand Lodges developed within each state. Some thought was briefly given to organising an overarching "Grand Lodge of the United States," with George Washington who was a member of a Virginian lodge as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived.
The various state Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body. Freemasonry was imported to Jamaica by British immigrants who colonized the island for over years.
According to the Jamaican census, that potentially included 5, free black men and 40, free coloureds mixed-race.
Jamaican Freemasonry historian Jackie Ranston, noted that:. On 25 May , Masons around the world celebrated the th anniversary of the fraternity.
Jamaica hosted one of the regional gatherings for this celebration. Prince Hall Freemasonry exists because of the refusal of early American lodges to admit African Americans.
In , an African American named Prince Hall ,  along with 14 other African-American men, was initiated into a British military lodge with a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Ireland , having failed to obtain admission from the other lodges in Boston.
When the British military Lodge left North America after the end of the Revolution, those 15 men were given the authority to meet as a Lodge, but not to initiate Masons.
This lodge is not to be confused with the various Grand Lodges in Africa. As with the rest of U. Masonic authorities. By the s, such discrimination was a thing of the past.
Today most U. Grand Lodges recognise their Prince Hall counterparts, and the authorities of both traditions are working towards full recognition.
English Freemasonry spread to France in the s, first as lodges of expatriates and exiled Jacobites , and then as distinctively French lodges which still follow the ritual of the Moderns.
From France and England, Freemasonry spread to most of Continental Europe during the course of the 18th century.
Briefly eclipsed during the French Revolution , French Freemasonry continued to grow in the next century,  at first under the leadership of Alexandre Francois Auguste de Grasse , Comte de Grassy-Tilly.
A career Army officer, he had lived with his family in Charleston, South Carolina from to the early s, after leaving Saint-Domingue now Haiti during the years of the Haitian Revolution.
The ritual form on which the Grand Orient of France was based was abolished in England in the events leading to the formation of the United Grand Lodge of England in However the two jurisdictions continued in amity mutual recognition until events of the s and s drove a seemingly permanent wedge between them.
In the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of the State of Louisiana appeared in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, recognised by the Grand Orient de France, but regarded by the older body as an invasion of their jurisdiction.
The new Scottish Rite body admitted blacks. The resolution of the Grand Orient the following year that neither colour, race, nor religion could disqualify a man from Masonry prompted the Grand Lodge to withdraw recognition, and it persuaded other American Grand Lodges to do the same.
A dispute during the Lausanne Congress of Supreme Councils of prompted the Grand Orient de France to commission a report by a Protestant pastor which concluded that, as Freemasonry was not a religion, it should not require a religious belief.
The new constitutions read, "Its principles are absolute liberty of conscience and human solidarity", the existence of God and the immortality of the soul being struck out.
It is possible that the immediate objections of the United Grand Lodge of England were at least partly motivated by the political tension between France and Britain at the time.
The result was the withdrawal of recognition of the Grand Orient of France by the United Grand Lodge of England, a situation that continues today.
Not all French lodges agreed with the new wording. In , lodges favouring the compulsory recognition of the Great Architect of the Universe formed the Grande Loge de France.
There are now three strands of Freemasonry in France, which extend into the rest of Continental Europe The term Continental Freemasonry was used in Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry to "designate the Lodges on the Continent of Europe which retain many usages which have either been abandoned by, or never were observed in, the Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland, as well as the United States of America".
The majority of Freemasonry considers the Liberal Continental strand to be Irregular, and thus withhold recognition. For the Continental lodges, however, having a different approach to Freemasonry was not a reason for severing masonic ties.
Included in the list of over 70 Grand Lodges and Grand Orients are representatives of all three of the above categories, including mixed and women's organisations.
The United Grand Lodge of England does not communicate with any of these jurisdictions, and expects its allies to follow suit. This creates the distinction between Anglo-American and Continental Freemasonry.
In the early 20th century Freemasonry was an influential semi-secret force in Italian politics with a strong presence among professionals and the middle class across Italy, as well as among the leadership of the parliament, public administration, and the army.
They had 25, members in or more lodges. Freemasons took on the challenge of mobilizing the press, public opinion and the leading political parties in support of Italy's joining the Allies of the First World War in — Traditionally, they promoted Italian nationalism focused on unification, and undermining the power of the Catholic Church.
In they dropped the traditional pacifistic rhetoric and used instead the powerful language of Italian nationalism. Freemasonry had always promoted cosmopolitan universal values, and by onwards they demanded a League of Nations to promote a new post-war universal order based upon the peaceful coexistence of independent and democratic nations.
The status of women in the old guilds and corporations of medieval masons remains uncertain. The principle of "femme sole" allowed a widow to continue the trade of her husband, but its application had wide local variations, such as full membership of a trade body or limited trade by deputation or approved members of that body.
At the dawn of the Grand Lodge era , during the s, James Anderson composed the first printed constitutions for Freemasons , the basis for most subsequent constitutions, which specifically excluded women from Freemasonry.
The French officially abandoned the experiment in the early 19th century. Maria Deraismes was initiated into Freemasonry in , then resigned to allow her lodge to rejoin their Grand Lodge.
Having failed to achieve acceptance from any masonic governing body, she and Georges Martin started a mixed masonic lodge that worked masonic ritual.
Meanwhile, the French had re-invented Adoption as an all-female lodge in , only to cast it aside again in The lodges, however, continued to meet, which gave rise, in , to a body of women practising continental Freemasonry.
In general, Continental Freemasonry is sympathetic to Freemasonry amongst women, dating from the s when French lodges assisted the emergent co-masonic movement by promoting enough of their members to the 33rd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite to allow them, in , to form their own grand council, recognised by the other Continental Grand Councils of that Rite.
While they were not, therefore, recognised as regular, they were part of Freemasonry "in general". In guidance was released by the United Grand Lodge of England stating that, in regard to transgender women, "A Freemason who after initiation ceases to be a man does not cease to be a Freemason".
Anti-Masonry alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry has been defined as "opposition to Freemasonry",   but there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement.
Anti-Masonry consists of widely differing criticisms from diverse and often incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form.
Critics have included religious groups, political groups, and conspiracy theorists , in particular, those espousing Masonic conspiracy theories or the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory.
Certain prominent Anti-Masons, such as Nesta Helen Webster — , have exclusively criticized "Continental Masonry" while considering "Regular Masonry" an honorable association.
These often lack context,  may be outdated for various reasons,  or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author, as in the case of the Taxil hoax.
The political opposition that arose after the American " Morgan Affair " in gave rise to the term Anti-Masonry , which is still in use in America today, both by Masons in referring to their critics and as a self-descriptor by the critics themselves.
Freemasonry has attracted criticism from theocratic states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion, or supposed heterodoxy within the fraternity itself and has long been the target of conspiracy theories , which assert Freemasonry to be an occult and evil power.
Although members of various faiths cite objections, certain Christian denominations have had high-profile negative attitudes to Masonry, banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons.
The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the Catholic Church. The objections raised by the Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic deistic religion which is in conflict with Church doctrine.
The Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication , and banned books favouring Freemasonry.
In , the Church issued a new code of canon law. Unlike its predecessor, the Code of Canon Law did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the secret societies it condemns.
It states: "A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty; one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict.
The faithful who enrol in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion. In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism, Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism , occultism , and even Satanism.
His writings represented his personal opinion only, and furthermore an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the US.
Notably, his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry.
Free Methodist Church founder B. Roberts was a vocal opponent of Freemasonry in the mid 19th century. Roberts opposed the society on moral grounds and stated, "The god of the lodge is not the God of the Bible.
Freedom from secret societies is one of the "frees" upon which the Free Methodist Church was founded. In recent decades, however, reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism, perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church.
The former archbishop of Canterbury , Dr Rowan Williams , appeared to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual, whilst being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England.
In he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth.
In , the Orthodox Church of Greece officially declared that being a Freemason constitutes an act of apostasy and thus, until he repents, the person involved with Freemasonry cannot partake of the Eucharist.
This has been generally affirmed throughout the whole Eastern Orthodox Church. The Orthodox critique of Freemasonry agrees with both the Catholic and Protestant versions: "Freemasonry cannot be at all compatible with Christianity as far as it is a secret organisation, acting and teaching in mystery and secret and deifying rationalism.
Regular Freemasonry has traditionally not responded to these claims, beyond the often repeated statement that those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion.
There is no separate 'Masonic deity,' and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry. Christian men, who were discouraged from joining the Freemasons by their Churches or who wanted a more religiocentric society, joined similar fraternal organisations, such as the Knights of Columbus for Catholic Christians, and the Loyal Orange Institution for Protestant Christians,  although these fraternal organisations have been "organized in part on the style of and use many symbols of Freemasonry".
There are some elements of Freemasonry within the temple rituals of Mormonism. Many Islamic anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied to both antisemitism and Anti-Zionism , though other criticisms are made such as linking Freemasonry to Al-Masih ad-Dajjal the false Messiah in Islamic Scripture.
Many countries with a majority Muslim population do not allow Masonic establishments within their borders. However, countries such as Turkey and Morocco have established Grand Lodges,  while in countries such as Malaysia   and Lebanon  there are District Grand Lodges operating under a warrant from an established Grand Lodge.
Lodge buildings were confiscated by the government. However, the position changed following the revolution, and all lodges were forced to close in Suchzeit: 0.
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Vielen Dank dafür! Links auf dieses Wörterbuch oder einzelne Übersetzungen sind herzlich willkommen! English These girls are also working in big construction companies like Ram-ki construction, as masons , full-time masons.
English For the billions spent on reconstruction, you can train masons for dollars on every house that they end up building over their lifetime.
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